HereLet us see about the Einstein’s photoelectric effect animation’s equation.The Metals have a large number of a free electrons, By which wander throughout the body of the metal.The However, these electrons arenot free will to leave the surface of the metal. A minimum amount of a energy is required to liberate a electrons from the surface of the metal.
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But According to a Einstein,the bundles of a energy contained in a light iscalled photons. The energy of a each photon is `hnu` , where the h is Planck’s constant and `nu` is the frequency of light. The value of a Planck’s constant h="6.625" * 10-32Js. When a beam of the light is incident on the surface of a metal, each photon of the energy `hnu` is liberates a free electron.
The remaining energy (`hnu` - `hnuo` ) appears as the kinetic energy of the electrons. If the electron does not lose energy due to a internal collision, then
`1/2 ` mv2 max = `hnu` - `hnuo`
This phenomena is known as Einstein’s photoelectric equation
Here we shall see the experiment of the photoelectric effect animation.The apparatus which consists of an evacuated glass tube in which a photo-sensitive plate P is been placed at the one end and thecollecting electrode C at the other end. A quartz window W will be sealed on to theglass tube ,by which permits the ultraviolet light to pass through and airradiate the plate P. The battery B and a galvanometer G are connectedacross the plates P and C as shown in the animation figure. The plate Csupports at the positive potential with the respect to P.
A Ultraviolet light is allowed to be an incident on the plate P. The galvanometer shows the effect of a deflection indicating the flow of current, when the plate C is connected to the negative terminal of the battery there is no deflection in the galvanometer.
It is clear from the above experiment that when ultraviolet rays are incident on the plate P, electrons are emitted. These electrons are called photoelectrons and the current is called photoelectric current animation.Photoelectric current depends on the Intensity of the incidentradiation, Frequency of the incident radiation and Potential differencebetween the cathode and the anode.