# Digital Circuits

Electronicsdigital circuits are also called logic circuits because, with the proper input, they establish logical manipulation paths. Any desired information for computing or control can be operated upon by passing binary signals through various combinations of logic circuits, each signal representing a variable and carrying one bit of information. All digital circuits are formed by the combination of three basic circuits, also known as gates.

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Three basic circuits

AND gate:This type of gate operation is represented by a dot or by the absence of an operator. For example x.y = z or xy = z is read as “x AND y is equal to z.” The logical operation AND is interpreted to mean that z = 1if and only if x =1 and y = 1; otherwise z = 0.

OR gate:This operation is represented by a plus sign. For example, x+y = z is read “x OR y is equal to z.” meaning that z = 1 if x = 1 or if y = 1 orif both x = 1 and y = 1. If both x = 0 and y = 0, then z = 0.

NOT gate: This operation is represented by a prime (sometimes by a bar). For example x’ = z (or `barx` =z) is read “x not is equal to z,” meaning that z is what x is not. In other words, if x = 1, then z = 0; and if x = 0 then z = 1.

Logic circuits

Logiccircuits that perform the logical operations of AND, OR and NOT are shown with their symbols in figure drawn below. These circuits are called gates. And are block of hardware that produce a logic-1 or logic-0 output signal if input requirements are satisfied. The NOT gate is sometimes called an inverter circuit since it inverts a binary signal.

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ANDand OR gates may have more than two inputs. An AND gate with three inputs and an OR gate with four inputs are shown in figure drawn above.

Digitalcircuits are invariably constructed with integrated circuits. An integrated circuit is a small silicon semiconductor crystal, called a chip, containing electrical components such as transistors, diodes, resistors, and capacitors. The various components are interconnected inside the chip to form an electronic circuit. In other words they are so connected that they works as a digital circuits.