A particle detector is also known as a radiation detector in experimental and applied particle physics, nuclear physics and nuclear engineering. It is a device used for detecting; tracking, and/or identifying particles of high-energy, example are those particles which are produced by nuclear decay, cosmic radiation, or reactions in a particle accelerator. To measure the energy of the detected radiation, Modern detectors are used.
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Attributes of particles such as spin, momentum, charge etc. of the particles may be measured using these detectors.DescriptionDetectors which are being designed for modern accelerators have huge both size and cost. Instead of detector counter term is often used, in case the detector does not resolve the energy or ionization but only counts the particles. Particle detectors usually can also track ionizing radiation (high energy photons or even visible light) can also be usually tracked by these detectors.
They are called radiation detectors if they have their main purpose as radiation detection.Types and Examples of Radiation Detection SystemMany detectors invented so far and used are ionization detectors (semiconductor detectors and gaseous ionization detectors are the most typical) but other like Cerenkov light and transition radiation; detectors with completely different principles have also been applied.
ElectroscopeAn electroscope is used for the detecting the presence and magnitude of electric charge on a body. It was the first electrical measuring instrument which was also used earlier by scientists. A British physician William Gilbert invented it around 1600. Two classical types of electroscope are gold-leaf electroscope and pith-ball electroscope which are still used for demonstrating electrostatics.Modern DetectorsHermetic detectorA hermetic detector also called a 4π detector is designed for observing all possible decay products of an interaction between subatomic particles in a collider. Typically they are rough, cylindrical, having different types of detectors which are wrapped around each other.